|Britain, along with the other major European powers, signs a pact that guarantees the sovereignty of Belgium.
|Austria-Hungary, under Franz Josef, loses war with France.
|Kingdom of Italy is founded.
|American Civil War begins.
|Austria-Hungary, under Franz Josef, loses war with Prussia.
France, under the leadership of Emperor Napoleon III provoked war with Prussia. France lost badly to Wilhelm I
(Wilhelm II's grandfather). Among the losses were the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine in western France which were annexed
to Germany. Bismarck was against this action fearing the French would never forgive it. Good call.
ø Moltke (the senior) summed it up well:
"What our sword has won in half a year our sword must guard for half a century"
|Wilhelm I crowned Emperor of Germany at the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles
|France passes the law of Universal Service (the draft).
|France establishes the "Ecole Superieure de Guerre", The War College.
The Dual Alliance is struck between Germany and Austria-Hungary. Not enthusiastic about the alliance and feeling it may offend the Russia that had stood by Prussia, Wilhelm I commented upon signing:
"Thinking of what it means I feel like a traitor."
The Three Emperor's League is formed.
|Italy joins Germany and Austria-Hungary to form the Triple Alliance.
ø The Russian Reinsurance Treaty is signed.
|Wilhelm I dies.A diplomatic cable from Berlin on the Kaiser's death:
"Lord abide with us for the evening draws nigh."
|Wilhelm II becomes Emperor (Kaiser) of Germany.
|Emperor Franz Josef's son Rudolph commits suicide (after killing his 16 year old mistress).
|Wilhelm II dismisses Bismarck. Why? Prince Bernhard von Bulow writes:
"The authentic reason was that Wilhelm wanted to play Bismarck himself."
Germany refuses to renew the ø Russian Reinsurance Treaty of 1887. New Chancellor Georg Leo von Caprivi states:
"Bismarck was able to juggle with three balls but I can only juggle with two."
|Russia and France agree to consult if either are attacked.
The Franco-Russian Alliance comes into being.
|Russia and France agree to mobilize together if threatened by any member of the Triple Alliance.
|The Dreyfus Affair reveals incompetence, corruption and worse in the French army.
|Italian army crushed by Ethiopia at the Battle of Adowa.
|Emperor Franz Josef's wife is assassinated.
|The Tirpitz Plan is started for the building of a major German fleet.
|The Spanish-American War begins.
Britain becomes somewhat allied with the Franco-Russian combine with the entente cordiale with France.
|Russo-Japenese War. The Russians lose badly in Manchuria and Korea.
|Revolution in Russia is put down.
|The Morocco Crisis
|The Pig War between Austria-Hungary and Serbia begins.
Austria-Hungary annexes the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bulgaria proclaims independence from Turkey.
|The Kaiser is involved in the Daily Telegraph Affair.
|Edward VII dies and George V is crowned King of
|Italy wins war with Turkey to gain Tripoli.
|Second Moroccan Crisis.
|Britain and France agree on paper only to consult each other if faced with an unprovoked attack.
|Widespread strikes and disturbances in Russia.
|Kaiser calls the "War Council".
|French pass bill extending military service to three years.
|Second Balkan War between Serbia and Bulgaria.
|The Home Rule Act is passed in Britain. Civil war with Ireland becomes a possibility.